COVID-19 in Pediatric Patients: An update on Features and Treatment Options

Document Type : Review Article


1 Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, Iran

2 Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Ali Asghar Children’s Hospital, Tehran, Iran

3 Ali Asghar Clinical Research Development Center (AACRDC), Ali Asghar Children's Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.


This review aimed to identify the features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pediatric patients after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. According to the literature, the incidence of COVID-19 was reported to be 1-5% among children. However, the incidence of infection with the new variant of the virus is higher in children. The most common features were fever and respiratory manifestation. The milder severity and lower mortality of COVID-19 among children are related to their less contact, immature immune system, and different features of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), an important receptor of the virus to invade the host cells. Several complications were observed in severe pediatric patients, such as coinfections, encephalitis, multisystem inflammatory syndrome, and multiorgan failure. The most frequent laboratory data were the procalcitonin elevation. The enhanced inflammatory factors and lymphocytopenia were less common among this population. In the CT findings, the ground‐glass opacities, pulmonary consolidation, fine mesh shadow, and tiny nodules were most common. While some children were admitted to the ICU, mechanical ventilation was rarely reported. The vertical intrauterine transmission from mother to child has not been proven. The treatment mainly focuses on maintaining balance in the fluids and electrolytes, nutritional support, and oxygen therapy for this vulnerable population.