Department of Hematology,
Department of Pulmonary Medicine,
Department of Pathology, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, MASHHAD-IRAN.
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a common hematologic malignancy. Pleural effusion is a rare presenting feature of multiple myeloma which carries a poor prognosis. Few cases of multiple myeloma with pleural involvement have been reported in the medical literature. We report a patient with MM diagnosed by cytologic examination of pleural fluid. Our patient was a 64- year old man with multiple myeloma who was receiving chemotherapy. He had developed dry coughs and exertional dyspnea about a month prior to the admission. Radiographic examination showed left pleural effusion with mediastinal shift to the opposite side. Diagnostic thoracentesis of pleural fluid was performed for the patient. Pathologic examination of pleural fluid showed plasmocytes and plasmablast type mononuclear cells with atypical nuclei, consistent with the diagnosis of pleural effusion due to multiple myeloma. In view of multiple etiologies of pleural effusion in malignant diseases, rare etiologies should also be considered in order to treat the effusion appropriately. (Tanaffos 2007; 6(2): 68-72)