Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, NRITLD, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran ,
Tracheal Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran,
3 Lung Transplantation Research Center, Department of Cardiology, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
1 Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, NRITLD, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran ,
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a condition associated with high morbidity and mortality. Patients with PH who require critical care usually have severe right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. Although different groups of PH have different etiologies, pulmonary vascular dysfunction is common in these groups. PH can lead to increased pulmonary artery pressure, which can ultimately cause RV failure. Clinicians should be familiar with the presentations of this disease and diagnostic tools. The contributing factors, if present (e.g., sepsis), and coexisting conditions (e.g., arrhythmias) should be identified and addressed accordingly. The preload should be optimized by fluid administration, diuretics, and dialysis, if necessary. On the other hand, the RV afterload should be reduced to improve the RV function with pulmonary vasodilators, such as prostacyclins, inhaled nitric oxide, and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, especially in group 1 PH. Inotropes are also used to improve RV contractility, and if inadequate, use of ventricular assist devices and extracorporeal life support should be considered in suitable candidates. Moreover, vasopressors should be used to maintain systemic blood pressure, albeit cautiously, as they increase the RV afterload. Measures should be also taken to ensure adequate oxygenation. However, mechanical ventilation is avoided in RV failure. In this study, we reviewed the pathophysiology, manifestations, diagnosis, monitoring, and management strategies of PH, especially in intensive care units.