Document Type : Original Article
Allergy Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
Clinical Research Development Center of Children Hospital, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran
Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
Background: The outcome of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is complicated by various comorbidities; asthma, a common chronic disease, may be considered one of these conditions. This study aimed to investigate the effect of asthma as a potential comorbid condition on the COVID-19 prognosis.
Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included all RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 cases recorded on the Shiraz health department's electronic database from January to May 2020. A questionnaire was designed to collect information about patients' demographics, their history of asthma and other comorbidities, and the severity of COVID-19 by contacting them by phone.
Results: Of 3163 COVID-19 patients, 109 (3.4%) had self-reported asthma with a mean age of 42.7 ± 19.1 years. Most patients (98%) had mild-to-moderate asthma, while 2% had severe disease. Among asthmatic patients, fourteen (12.8%) were admitted to the hospital, and five (4.6%) died. Univariate logistic regression results showed that asthma had no significant effect on hospitalization (OR 0.95, 95% CI: 0.54-1.63) and mortality (OR 1.18, 95% CI: 0.48-2.94) in patients with COVID-19. Compared living and deceased patients with COVID-19, the pooled OR was 18.2 (95% CI: 7.3–40.1) for cancer, 13.5 (95% CI: 8.2–22.5) for age 40-70 years, 3.1 (95% CI: 2–4.8) for hypertension, 3.1 (95% CI: 1.8–5.3) for cardiac disease and 2.1 (95% CI: 1.3–3.5) for diabetes mellitus.
Conclusion: This study showed that asthma is not associated with an increased risk of hospitalization and mortality in patients with COVID-19. Further studies are needed to investigate the risk of different asthma phenotypes on the severity of COVID-19 disease.