Tobacco Smoking Pattern: Cigarette vs. Hookah


1 Tobacco Prevention and Control Research Center (TPCRC),

2 Department of Epidemiology,

3 Department of Cardiology,

4 Department of Internal Medicine,

5 Department of Pulmonary Medicine, NRITLD, Shahid Beheshti University, MC, TEHRAN-IRAN.


Background: Smoking causes 5.2 million deaths annually in the world of which 70% occur in developing countries. Hookah smoking is increasing around the world especially in the Eastern Mediterranean Region including Iran. This study was carried out to evaluate the pattern of tobacco smoking in both forms of cigarette and hookah smoking. Materials and Methods: A cross- sectional study was conducted among a random population in the main squares of Tehran in 2006. The sample size consisted of 2053 people in the age range of 10 to 80 years. Non-Probability Sampling method was used. Questionnaires designed and adapted according to WHO and IUATLD questionnaires given to these people. Results: Forty-six percent of the sample had experienced hookah smoking. The prevalence of occasional hookah smoking in the previous year was 45% , while 10% of the participants used hookah at least once a week, 17.9% at least once a month and 17.1% at least once a year;47.2% of participants had experienced cigarette smoking. Prevalence of daily cigarette smoking was 22.7%; 22.7% of current smokers and 25.01% of non-smokers consumed hookah at least once a week. Conclusion: Prevalence of hookah smoking is very similar among cigarette smokers and non-smokers. In this study the prevalence of cigarette smokers was more than national data and the rate of cigarette and hookah smoking among women was higher than that of other studies in this realm. These issues need to be further investigated and more serious studies are required in this regard. (Tanaffos 2009; 8(1): 62-67)