Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Mashhad Islamic Azad University,
Department of Clinical Anatomical Pathology, Razavi Subspecialty Hospital, MASHHAD-IRAN.
Anthracosis of the lung is black discoloration of bronchial mucosa that may distort and occlude the bronchial lumen and cause significant clinical findings named "Anthracofibrosis". In this article a rare presentation of this disease and related complications were reported. A 73 year-old woman with a 10-year history of chronic cough, dyspnea, weight loss and wheezing was referred to us for exacerbation of her symptoms in winter. She was a known case of anthracosis. Her previous bronchoscopy and sampling were inconclusive. Her recent computed tomography (CT) scan showed bilateral parenchymal infiltration, multiple lymph node calcifications and an intra-luminal calcified material in the left main bronchus. Bronchoscopy showed a floating foreign body in the left main bronchus and infiltration of the right and left main bronchi. Bronchial lavage showed plenty of acid fast bacilli and biopsy showed granulomatous reaction in favor of tuberculosis. In conclusion, we believe that broncholithiasis should be considered as a chronic complication of anthracosis. (Tanaffos 2010; 9(1): 63-66)