Bronchial Anthracofibrosis or Anthracotic Bronchitis


1 Department of Pulmonary Medicine,

2 Department of Radiology,

3 Department of Clinical Anatomical Pathology

4 Department of Mycobacteriology, NRITLD, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, TEHRAN-IRAN

5 Department of Pulmonary Medicine


Background: The aim of our research was to study the characteristics of anthracotic bronchitis in patients undergoing bronchoscopy in Massih Daneshvari Hospital. All patients that showed anthracotic changes, edema, and/or bronchial stricture on bronchoscopy were studied and included. Materials and Methods: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was obtained from all of the patients and sent for BK, smear, culture, and cytological evaluations. Also, bronchial biopsy was obtained from some of the cases. A questionnaire having information such as personal data, place of residence, occupation, history of smoking, history of baking bread in traditional furnaces, and past history of TB was filled out for each patient. Meanwhile anthracotic sites that were observed in bronchoscopy were marked in specially designed tables. Results: Out of 290 patients that had undergone bronchoscopy in a 4-month period during the year 2001-2002 in Massih Daneshvari hospital, 47 suffered from anthracotic bronchitis; 51.1% of the patients were male; 73.3% lived in the urban, and the remaining cases resided in rural areas; 10.6% had history of smoking and 29.3% baked bread in traditional furnaces. The most common symptom and sign were cough and rale, and the most frequent site involved was right lower lobe. Based on bacteriology and/or pathology, 27.7% of the patients had tuberculosis. The most common radiological finding was the increase of bronchovascular markings. Conclusion: - Anthracotic bronchitis is a very common disease in Iran. - In any middle or old-aged patient that has increased bronchvascular marking, collapse, atelectasis along with calcified mediastinal lymph nodes, anthracotic bronchitis should be considered in the list of differential diagnosis. - Any patient having bronchoscopic findings in favour of anthracotic bronchitis should undergo all the necessary evaluations for TB. (Tanaffos 2003; 2(8): 7-11)