Acute Effect of Water Pipe Smoke on Sensitized Animals


1 Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine

2 Department of Immunology, Medical School of Islamic Azad University, Mashhad Branch

3 Dr. Moayed Pathobiology Laboratory, MASHHAD- IRAN.


Background: This study aimed to compare the inflammatory effects of water pipe smoke with cigarette smoke on inducing exacerbation in asthmatic murine model, under similar conditions of exposure. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six BALB-C mice in six different groups (one control group, one asthmatic group and four groups of asthmatic exposed to smoke) were entered the study. Animals were exposed to cigarette and water pipe smokes and samples were obtained after 6 and 24 hours. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected and analyzed for neutrophils, eosinophils, nitric oxide, Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and Interleukin-4 (IL-4). Serum Interferon-γ and IL-4 were also evaluated. Both lungs were sent for histopathological examination. Results: In all sensitized animals, BALF cytology showed a significant decrease in neutrophils and lymphocyte percentage and significant increase of eosinophils. The level of nitric oxide in all smoke exposed animals was significantly higher than sensitized controls. Water pipe smoke did not affect the IL-4 level, but cigarette smoke decreased IL-4 after 6 hours. The level of IFN-γ in BALF decreased after 6 hours of exposure in both exposed groups and returned to baseline after 24 hours. Conclusion: Exacerbation of asthma by water pipe smoke is comparable to that of cigarette smoke. The mechanism of action may be through the suppression of the type 1 T helper cells. (Tanaffos2010; 9(4): 39-47)