Document Type : Original Article
Pediatric Respiratory Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Lung Transplantation Research Center, NRITLD, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Telemedicine Research Center, NRITLD, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Tracheal Diseases Research Center, NRITLD, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Chronic Respiratory Diseases Research Center, NRITLD, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Neonatal Research Center, Imam Reza Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
Mycobacteriology Research Center, NRITLD, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Background: Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP) is an uncommon pulmonary disease characterized by the accumulation of surfactant composed of proteins and lipids due to disruption of surfactant clearance by alveolar macrophages. The current standard treatment is lung lavage. There are no specific criteria for lavage, but in case of observing these signs it is recommended to perform lavage for the patient: progressive respiratory failure, no labored breathing at rest, and drop in oxygen level during activity (>5%).
Materials and Methods: In this study, patients with PAP admitted to Pediatric ward of Masih Daneshvari Hospital were studied. The required data were collected including the patient's demographic data, clinical signs and radiographic data, the number of admissions, the age of diagnosis, detection and treatment methods, number of lavage, current condition of the patient, and in case of death, the cause of death.
Results: In this study, 17 patients with PAP who were admitted during the past 15 years were examined; among which 7 patients were boys (41.2%) and 10 were girls (58.8%). The mean age of population was 11.79±7.21 years. Transbronchial Lung Biopsy (TBLB) (47.1%) and open lung biopsy (52.9%) were used for diagnosis of patients. Lung lavage was used to treat patients, 15 of whom were treated by this method. Five of the patients died because of their serious conditions.
Conclusion: Therapy method in the present study was lavage for both lungs, and it was performed for all patients except for two patients due to their anatomical complications. This method is still considered as the gold standard for PAP. Considering the findings from previous studies and the present study, it seems that Whole Lung Lavage (WLL) was fruitful for patients who had the indication for using this therapy and it played a significant role in improving the prognosis of patients. Besides, it is recommended to do follow-up regularly in order to have more therapeutic efficacy and increased patient longevity.