Document Type : Review Article
Department of Mycobacteriology and Pulmonary Research, Microbiology Research Center, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran
Microbiology Research Center, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran
Department of Mycobacteriology and Pulmonary Research, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran
Department of Molecular Medicine, Biotechnology Research Center, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran
Department of Medical Genetics, Cancer Research Center, Shohada Hospital , School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran
Department of Genetics & Biotechnology, School of Biological Science, Varamin-Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran
Tuberculosis (TB) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are two major contributors to mortality and morbidity worldwide. In this regard, TB and NSCLC have similar symptoms, and TB has symptoms that are identical to malignancy; therefore, sometimes it is mistakenly diagnosed as lung cancer. Moreover, patients with active pulmonary TB are at a higher risk of dying due to lung cancer. In addition, several signaling pathways involved in TB and NSCLC have been identified. Also, the miRNAs are biological molecules shown to play essential roles in the above-mentioned diseases through targeting the signaling pathways’ genes. Most of the pathways affected by miRNAs are immune responses such as autophagy and apoptosis in TB and NSCLC, respectively. Several studies have separately investigated the expression of miRNAs profile in patients with NSCLC and infectious TB. In this critical review, we attempted to gather common miRNAs between TB and NSCLC and to explain the involved-pathways, which are affected by miRNAs in both TB and NSCLC. Results of this critical review show that the expressions of miR-155, miR-146a, miR-125b, miR-30a, miR-29a, and miR-Let7 have significantly changed in TB and NSCLC. The data suggest that miRNAs expression may provide a new method for screening or differential diagnosis of NSCLC and TB.