Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran,
Department of Surgery, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran,
Kerman Neuroscience Research Center, Neuropharmacology Institute, Kerman, Iran,
Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
Background: Tracheostomy site infection can cause numerous problems. Absorbent foam dressing may be able to prevent proliferation of infectious microorganisms by absorbing the tracheostomy stoma exudate. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of absorbent foam with gauze dressing for prevention of tracheostomy site infection. Materials and Methods: In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 80 patients (18 to 60 years) hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) due to severe head injury were randomly divided into two groups and early tracheostomy was done for them during the first 2 days. In the first group, gauze was used as tracheostomy site dressing, while in the second, absorbent foam, was placed. Tracheostomy site was checked daily for any sign of infection and samples were taken from the stoma for culture in case of presence of any sign of infection. Results: Of a total of 80, 11 had tracheostomy site infection (13.75%), including 7 (17.5%) in the gauze group and 4 (10%) in the foam group. The difference in this regard between the two groups was not significant (P=0.051). Also, the dominant strains in the culture of gauze group were hospital-acquired Gramnegative bacteria (particularly Acinetobacter), while in the foam group, Grampositives and more commonly Staphylococcus epidermidis were found. Conclusion: Absorbent foam dressing is not superior to gauze dressings for prevention of tracheostomy site infection.