Department of Medicine, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia,
1 Department of Medicine, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia,
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia,
Communicable Diseases Center, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar
Background: To describe the clinical presentations, treatment regimen, and outcomes of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP) among immunocompromised patients at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, patients with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of PJP were included. Results: During the study, 42 patients with confirmed PJP were identified. Twenty (48%) patients were HIV-infected, while 22 (52%) were HIV negative. The median T-cell count (CD4) was below 50 cells/mL in HIV patients with PJP at the time of HIV and PJP diagnoses. Graft rejection, cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation, and lymphopenia were associated with the development of PJP in transplant recipients; and high-dose steroids for non-transplant patients. The allcause mortality at 90 days was lower in individuals with HIV-related PJP, compared to those with other predisposing conditions (10% and 32%, respectively; P=0.085). No specific risk factors were independently associated with the increased risk of mortality. Conclusion: PJP remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, with a higher mortality rate reported in non-HIV patients.